Advancing your education

Author: Jayalakshmi Bhaskar

Niche courses – One for the environment

Niche courses – One for the environment

[Originally published in Sunday edition of the Deccan Herald, dated 20 May 2012]

By doing the MS in Natural Resource Environment Management, offered at some US schools, you can be sure of a wide range of job opportunities opening up. A specialisation that has seen a resurgence in the US recently is environmental science. Let us look at some facts.

  • Employment of environmental scientists and specialists is expected to increase by 28 per cent between 2008 and 2018, much faster than the average for all occupations.
  • The Indian scenario is comparable and possibly more favourable than in the West.
  • There are new mandates from the Central Government in India; the Anna Hazare movement has also thrust environmental and social awareness to the front. Carbon Credits are driving private sector initiatives too. NGO’s and social sector organisations are targeting this as a major thrust area. Therefore graduates would have excellent prospects even if they returned to India.
  • Job growth should be strongest in private-sector consulting firms. Growth in employment will be spurred largely by the increasing demands placed on the environment by population growth and increasing awareness of the problems caused by environmental degradation.
  • Further, demand should result from the need to comply with complex environmental laws and regulations, particularly those regarding ground-water decontamination and clean air.
  • Graduates may find careers in central, state, and local government agencies that are charged with managing natural resources, in the private sector with productive careers in the industry and consulting firms, or in academia as college or university faculty.

Let me cite a specific example within the broad canvas of environmental studies: for instance the MS in Natural Resource Environment Management (NREM) offered at some US schools. It has the path to your future in an extraordinary wide range of interesting specialisations that may interest you:

  • Parks and recreation management or environmental interpretation
  • Sustainable agriculture or land management
  • Wetland characterisation and delineation
  • Urban and rural community development at the local, state, national, and international level
  • Industrial ecology, global environmental change, or resource economics
  • Water quality, conservation, or hydrology
  • Soil quality, conservation, or pedology
  • Waste water management, management of hazardous materials
  • Environmental site assessment, remediation of contaminated materials
  • Awareness and response to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), the science of WMDs
  • Air quality, pollution control, environmental permitting

It would also prepare you for certifications in:

  • OSHA HAZWOPER (Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response)
  • Fire Training System — Red-Card Certification from NWCG (National Wildfire Coordinating Group).

With NREM there are courses to meet your interests and needs, projects to hone your skills, and multiple field stations to conduct research and engage with nature. With a major or minor in Natural Resources and Environmental Management your professional options are wide open. Employers are seeking qualified graduates to incorporate knowledge about natural resources and environmental management into their business infrastructure and future development. As a teacher, politician or policy maker, conservation officer, park naturalist, environmental consultant, environmental engineer, urban planner, business owner, economist, diplomat, historian or a county or state health inspector you will complete your higher education with a highly desirable, unique skill set to offer future employers.

Admission requirements

  • To be admitted to the Masters or Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences you must have the equivalent of a four-year Bachelor’s degree in any one of a wide range of majors, including Sciences, Geology or Engineering.
  • You must meet typical American university entrance requirements, such as: TOEFL, GRE, Letters of Recommendation, Statement of Purpose etc.
  • A graduate programme in Environmental Sciences has a uniquely interdisciplinary focus. Through rigorous core curriculum and dissertation research that draw from more than one discipline, you will learn about traditional and emerging areas of environmental sciences, developing the knowledge, skills, and expertise necessary to pursue complex questions in environmental science.
  • This programme would also build on the university’s institutional strengths in offering you university teaching experience and research opportunities such as National Science Foundation (NSF) grants.
  • Typically, Indian students have done very well in an inter-disciplinary programme, such as Environmental Sciences or Environmental Management. Most importantly, most Indian students have a strong concern for the environment.
  • That passion for the environment is arguably the strongest factor in the success of Indian students and young Indian professionals currently working in the growing field of Environmental Studies.

By Bhaskar Rajah

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Study Actuarial Science in the US

[Originally published in Deccan Herald, dated 03 Aug 2011]

With the Indian insurance and financial sectors growing rapidly, students doing a Masters in actuarial sciences in the US will have excellent prospects even if they return to India, writes Bhaskar Rajah

There are three key aspects to making the right decision regarding collegiate and graduate higher education overseas: First, is understanding the various niche specialisations that offer a demand-supply gap in terms of employment; second would be the individual and career development benefits of studying at the right university that offer such niche programmes; and third is the interest and suitability of the student vis-a-vis the major and the university.

Let me start off by addressing two related questions students ask me:

I studied something else in my undergraduate studies in India, how will I be admitted to a Master’s programme in a different discipline?

Past education need not be a constraint for your future education.  American education prides itself on flexibility.  Broadly speaking, an engineer can go on to study medicine and a doctor can switch to engineering studies, should he so desire.

As long as the prerequisites for entry to a programme of study are met, your undergraduate degree will not compartmentalise you and prevent you from studying a different major at the graduate level.

Why should I go to the US?  Why not study in India?

I ask the same question to students whom I meet.  Here are the main reasons they gave me for wanting to go to the US for such programmes, and I quote:

  • There are not enough seats in accredited universities in India for such specialised programmes
  • India has become more global and it will give us a competitive advantage to have at least one international degree and then return to India
  • An international degree will offer us prospects for international careers

Having said that, let me introduce you to a niche specialisation, actuarial science, that is currently very popular in the US.

The actuarial profession was included as one of the best careers in US News and World Report. The job of an actuary has also been rated as the second best job in the United States by the Jobs Rated Almanac. The popular reference book lists the actuarial profession above other highly regarded careers such as accountant or attorney.

The Jobs Rated Almanac printed five previous editions between 1988 and 2001. In two editions, actuary was rated as the best job and in two others, actuary was rated second best. Actuary has never been rated lower than fourth, a ranking it received in the fifth edition before climbing two spots in the most recent edition.

The editors compiled statistics on 250 occupations, from accountant to zoologist. The occupations are ranked on the basis of six key criteria: environment, income, employment outlook, physical demands, security, and stress. The data comes from government sources, such as the US Bureau of Labour Statistics and the US Census Bureau, as well as studies from trade associations and industry groups.

There are a few graduate programmes in the US focused on actuarial science.

Typically for actuarial studies faculty members are top-notch: All are fellows, the highest professional actuarial designation, and all have years of practical business-world experience.  When it’s time to seek your first internship or job, you’ll be able to interview with some of the world’s top employers.

Admission requirements

To be admitted to the Masters in the actuarial science programme, you must have a bachelor’s degree with three semesters of calculus, a course in linear algebra, and at least one semester of probability and statistics.

You must meet typical American university entrance requirements, such as, TOEFL, GRE, Letters of Recommendation, Statement of Purpose and so on.

Why is it perfectly suited for Indian students?

Typically Indian students with Math, Statistics, CA or Engineering background excel in mathematics.  Moreover, Indian students excel in applying quantitative techniques in the financial services industry and with insurance applications.  In fact, American universities are surprised by the small number of Indians studying actuarial sciences there compared to the more robust number of Chinese students.

The Indian insurance and financial sectors are also growing rapidly and there is not an internationally ranked Masters in Actuarial Sciences programme in India and therefore graduates would have excellent prospects even if they returned to India.

By Bhaskar Rajah

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